The Triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) is formed by the triangular fibrocartilage disc (TFC), the radioulnar ligaments (RULs) and the ulnocarpal ligaments (UCLs).

Anatomy of the Triangular Fibrocartilage Disc (TFC):

The TFC is a trianguar, biconcave (concave on both sides and thicker along its periphery) articular disc that sits at the distal ulna, between the ulna and the carpals.  The central portion of the TFC is thin, and is made of fibrocartilage (the type of cartilage that is designed to withstand compressive loads; such as in the meniscus of the knee).  Like in the knee, the inner portion of the TFC is poorly vascularized while the outer edge is well vascularized.  For this reason, often internal tears never heal and the injury become chronic (or are a surgical and not a rehab concern).

Note the integration of the disc with the ligaments

Note the integration of the disc with the ligaments

The TFC is attached to the wrist joint by the radioulnar and ulnocarpal ligaments (as well as smaller ligaments that attach it directly to the lunate and triquetrum bones).  These ligaments are also stabilizers of the wrist.  For this reason, any tear in the TFC or the TFCC (the disc plus the ligaments) often leads to instability in the wrist - a common problem with gymnasts that often requires bracing that compresses the radius and ulna and limits extension (tiger paws, pegasus wrist supports, etc).

Unstable left wrist with a history of severe TFCC injury.  (Yep - I have personal experience with it)..


The primary functions of the TFCC:

  • To support the ulnar portion of the wrist by increasing congruence between the ulna and the proximal row of carpals.
  • Load transmission across the ulnocarpal joint (partially load absorbing between the ulna and the carpals)
  • Allows forearm rotation by giving a strong but flexible connection between the distal radius and ulna.

How is the TFCC injured?

As mentioned above, the TFCC complex stabilizes the wrist at the distal radioulnar joint. It also acts as a focal point for the force transmitted across the wrist along the ulnar side during weight bearing activities.  Traumatic injury (such as a fall onto an outstretched hand) is the most common mechanism of injury. The hand is usually in a pronated or palm down position. Tearing or rupture of the TFCC occurs when there is enough force through the ulnar side of the overextended wrist to overcome the tensile strength of this structure.  (Sounds like most tumbling skills right?)  The TFCC is also at risk with gripping or tensile loads (as seen when using a power drill that suddenly binds up or with gripping and pulling - such as many bar/ring skills) and can be torn this way as well.

In gymnastics and acrobatics however, the TFCC can also be injured through overuse injury (both in support skills and hanging elements).  As the wrist has evolved over time and is no longer designed for true weight bearing activities, the TFCC is smaller and thinner than analogous cartilage discs (such as the meniscus) in the lower extremities (legs).  With repetitive weight bearing (both compressive and tensile), this area can become inflamed and tendonitis/tendonosis can develop in the anchoring wrist ligaments (often misdiagnosed as a wrist sprain).  The subsequent inflammation can irritate the TFC, causing it to swell and/or weaken overtime.  This causes subtle breakdown in the structure (as well as in the adjacent ligaments) that can lead to a traumatic tear with less force than required for a healthy TFCC.


Symptoms: (aka: why you're really here...)

The symptoms of an injury to the TFCC are relatively simple, though they are often misdiagnosed as a wrist "sprain." (Most non-orthopedics will use the term "sprain" as a catch-all for traumatic wrist pain that is not a fracture).

Primary symptoms:

The main symptom is ulnar wrist pain (pain along the pinky side of the hand).  In most cases it is right along the joint line, though some people will complain of "diffuse" wrist pain (a general pain that exists throughout the wrist joint).  Often this pain is increased with weight bearing activities on the wrist (handstands or hanging) and rotation of the wrist (such as turning a doorknob or lifting a heavy pan with one hand).  There is also often tenderness to the touch along the ulnar side of the joint.

Secondary symptoms:

Some other possible symptoms include: swelling in the area, clicking or popping in the joint (aka crepitus) and weakness (usually due to pain inhibition). 

Differential diagnosis: (a.k.a. ruling out other more serious conditions)

The biggest concern for a gymnast/acrobat would be ruling out a fracture.  A fracture at the end of the ulna would present with similar symptoms.  The biggest difference is that with a fracture, supination and pronation (twisting) motions of the forearm would also be GREATLY limited, if not blocked due to an ulnar dislocation.  If you (or anyone that you coach) is unable to twist the forearm without significant pain, my best recommendation is to send them for an x-ray to rule out the fracture.


Diagnosis:

While it's best to leave the diagnosing to the professionals, there are some quick tests that you can do on your own to differentiate a possible TFCC injury from general wrist pain.

TFCC provocation test: Hold the hand upright and neutral.  Then perform ulnar deviation (tilt the hand toward the pinky) slowly.  A positive test (meaning you may have a TFCC injury) is a specific pinch pain along the ulnar (pinky) side of the joint.  A negative test (no injury) is reaching the end of the motion without pain or motion loss.

                      Starting Position

                      Starting Position

The hand is passively tilted toward the pinky until end range. A positive result is pain.

The hand is passively tilted toward the pinky until end range. A positive result is pain.

Fovea sign: Apply external pressure to the area of the wrist along the fovea of the ulna (see picture).  This is the space along the end of the ulna along the lateral side of the joint.  Compare this to the other side.  If there is pain with pressure, the test is considered positive (This is a highly sensitive, newly approved test BUT does not rule out fracture so be warned).

Pain under the examiner's thumb with moderate pressure is a positive test

Pain under the examiner's thumb with moderate pressure is a positive test


Treatment:

Treatment depends largely on the severity of the tear and how limiting it is to training and activities.  Like any ligamentous injury, a TFCC tear can be separated into grades of levels.  In the less severe cases, the ligaments will slowly heal (as they were not completely torn) and normal function can be regained.  In the more severe cases, surgery is an option to re-stabilize the TFCC and the wrist joint.  This is due to the fact the fully torn ligaments (and cartilage) do not actually regenerate to heal themselves.  Rather they will "scar down" as the body lays down additional collagen (connective tissue) in an effort to "patch" the injury.  Only a doctor (orthopedic) will be able to formally grade the injury (after using diagnostic imaging like an MRI or CT scan), so if there is a severe disruption in function (a.k.a. daily life is limited by pain), it is this author's recommendation that medical intervention be sought out.


Stages of recovery (non-surgical)

Acute (early inflammatory phase): within 2-4 weeks after the initial injury

One of many options for bracing the wrist during the acute/inflammatory phase

One of many options for bracing the wrist during the acute/inflammatory phase

In all cases, during the initial inflammatory period rest (so no training, lifting or gymnastics), ice and immobilization are the recommended protocols. The best position for the injured wrist is in a neutral position (see left) and supported by a brace.  The brace should be worn during daily activity to protect the wrist, and removed to allow for gentle movement and ice.  The type of brace is non-specific, but during this acute phase, should support the wrist and the hand in a immobile position.

While the wrist is braced during activities of daily living, it is important periodically remove it and do gentle mobility exercises and hand motions to ensure that no motion is lost and to assist in the elimination of swelling.  These exercises include: wrist circles, gentle wrist range of motion, towel squeezes (can also be putty squeezes), and opening and closing the hand into and out of a fist.  (For specifics on these exercises or an email copy of them, email me at aprescott@acropt.com)

During this time it is also important to ice the wrist periodically.  This can be done with a gel pack, bag of frozen peas, or a Ziploc bag of ice cubes.  Be sure to put a thin towel layer between the skin and ice, and only leave the ice on for 15 minutes at a time.  This should be done 4-5 times a day, to deal with swelling and help to alleviate pain.

After the inflammatory phase:

While there is no way to know for certain (without the hands on assessment of a professional) whether or not the injury has progressed beyond the acute or inflammatory stage, a general guide that can be used is the return of near full, pain-free motion.  At that time, it is prudent to progress to some light weight bearing and more resistance based exercises (again - email with specific questions).  It is also important to consider functional bracing to protect the injury and to minimize pain until full strength is regained.


Functional Bracing (a.k.a. bracing that can be worn during training):

Not every TFCC injury or wrist instability can be completely rehabilitated with exercise alone (especially during the first month or two).  Often functional bracing (bracing during activity to support the instability) can allow an acrobat/gymnast/yogi to continue to train while still protecting the newly healed TFCC (which can remain fragile until about the 6 month mark).

There are many braces on the market.  Here are some details about three that have been used in these acrobatic sports and weight training with success.  (They are listed in random order - not a numerical rating system).

Tiger Paws (aka Golden Paws): These are a more rigid wrist support (though now they do offer different inserts to vary the stiffness) that cover the wrist part of the hand.  Their purpose is to limit wrist extension/ulnar deviation in a support position (think handstand/bridge/down-dog).  In the case of a TFCC injury, they are very effective at protecting it once healed as they restrict the position (extension) that places the most stress on it.  The negative: they cover a portion of the hand so they are not as useful for work on apparatus (balance beam, trapeze, fabrics, etc) or with weight training.

Pegasus wrist supports:  This brace compresses the radius and the ulna (supports the distal radioulnar joint) while providing a small block against end range extension and ulnar deviation (the motions that irritate the TFCC).  The big difference between this brace and golden paws is that the Pegasus wrist supports do not cross onto the hand.  This allows them to be used on a wider variety of apparatus as the palm is left open and free. The negative: they do not support as completely as the Tiger Paws for TFCC because they do not block end-range extension fully and they are rather bulky at the wrist.

Wrist Widget:  This is a newer style of brace and is more minimal in its design.  It was specifically designed for TFCC injuries and has been marketed for athletes, weekend warriors, and regular folks alike.  Like the Pegasus wrist brace, it compresses the ulna and the radius for support.  However, it begins to differ in that it does not restrict extension in any way. It minimally limits ulnar deviation and supports the distal radioulnar joint so that the connecting ligaments of the TFCC are not as "stressed." This brace is ideal for an older injury and for use on various apparatus (including things like partner balancing and acro yoga where wrist and hand holds are a requirement) and with weight training.

Summary:

  • The TFCC (Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex) is composed of a disc (similar to the meniscus in the knee) and several adjacent ligaments on the ulnar side of the wrist.  It supports the ulna, connects to the radius and maintains joint space in the wrist during weight bearing (both hanging and support activities).
  • Injury can occur two ways: 1) trauma (usually into compression or strong traction with twisting)& 2) in some acrobats and gymnasts by simple overuse.
  • Treatment involves rest, ice, stretching/strengthening and functional bracing.  It is key to allow the injury to rest during the inflammatory (acute) stage to minimize the risk of chronic pain and ensure the best chance at healing.
  • When in doubt - seek a medical consult to ensure that you are safe to return to sport.

References:

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Levangie, P.K. and Norkin, C.C. (2005). Joint structure and function: A comprehensive analysis (4th ed.). Philadelphia: The F.A. Davis Company.

Hagert E., Proprioception of the Wrist Joint: A Review of Current Concepts and Possible Implications on the Rehabilitation of the Wrist, Journal of Hand Therapy, 2010 Jan-Mar 23, 2-16.

Neumann DA. Kinesiology of the musculoskeletal system: Foundations for Physical Rehabilitation.2nd Ed. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2009.

Parmelee-Peters, K., Eathorne, S. (2005). The Wrist: Common Injuries and Management. Primary Care, Clinics in Office Practice, 35-70.

Rettig AC, Athletic Injuries of the wrist and hand, part 1: traumatic injuries of the wrist. Am J Sports Med 2003:31(6):1038-48.

Verheyden JR, Palmer AK. EMedicine. Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1240789-overview. (accessed August 2, 2017)

Wadsworth, C., The wrist and hand examination and Interpretaion, J. Orthopedic and sports physical therapy, 1983, 108-20.

 

 

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